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Conceptual  Design

Preliminary Design

Detailed Design

Aircraft Configurations


We begin every project with a careful review of objectives and existing data and then offer an assessment that includes a cost projection and timeline. Our engineers use conceptual sketches and specifications to produce a complete design. Or, if you need a review of an existing design, we will analyze your design and provide you a documented projection of the performance and cost of your aircraft and perform a detailed comparative analysis of your competitor’s product, including weaknesses and strengths. Services include:

  • Conceptual & Preliminary Design

  • Stability & Control Analysis

  • Detailed Aircraft Performance Analysis

  • Aircraft Modification Analysis

  • Detailed Geometry Design




A. Aircraft Preliminary Design

  1. Sizing of the airplane to a given mission specification. Definition of the following parameters: Take-off Weight, Empty Weight, Mission Fuel Weight, Take-off Power, Wing Area, Maximum Lift Coefficients, and Class I Drag.

  2. List of comparative airplanes with similar mission performance

  3. Overall Configuration Selection

    • Fuselage Layout

    • Propulsion System Integration

    • Class I Performance involving Stall Speed, Take-off Distance, Climb, Max Cruise Speed, Maneuver/Turn and Landing Distance.

    • Wing and Empennage Planform Parameters based on volume coefficients and Class I Performance Sizing.

    • Type and Size of High Lift Devices

    • Landing Gear Type

    • Class, I Weight & Balance based on weight fractions

    • Preliminary arrangement drawings

    • Class I Stability & Control

    • Weights and L/D iterations

  4. Dimensioned Three-view Drawings

  5. Major Systems. General system arrangements and location in the airframe.

  6. Landing gear tires and struts sizing. Verification of landing gear disposition.

  7. Initial structural arrangement drawings

  8. V-n diagrams


B. Aircraft Detailed Design

  1. Class II (detailed) weight calculations with the center of gravity locations and determination of the forward and the most aft center of gravity loading scenarios.

  2. Generation of the Center of Gravity envelope.

  3. Calculation of Class II (detailed) moment of inertia of the aircraft and components.

  4. Engine inclination determination

  5. Calculation of hinge moment derivatives and coefficients for elevator, aileron, and rudders. Elevator, rudder, and aileron sizing, including horn balance and tabs.

  6. Lift versus angle of attack curves for power-off, power-on, clean, take-off, and landing condition.

  7. Verify trimmed maximum lift coefficients for the defined flight conditions and flap size verification.

  8. Calculation of zero angles of attack pitching moment, lift coefficients, and stability and control derivatives for the defined flight conditions at forward and aft center of gravity.

  9. Trim diagrams for the defined flight conditions to determine control surface sizes. Lateral-Directional trim.

  10. Stick force, stick-force gradients, and stick-force-per-g gradients for the defined flight conditions at the aft and forward center of gravity. Determination on whether down-spring and/or bob-weight installation are required. Where necessary, design adjustments will be suggested. Control forces will be calculated for different flight conditions for several different bank angles and sideslip angles. Control forces will be compared with applicable FAR regulations.

  11. Class II (detailed) drag calculations for several flights including power effects.

  12. Performance calculations for:

    • Cruise (maximum speed, range, endurance, and payload-range diagram)

    • Climb (Rate of the climb)

    • Take-off

    • Landing

    • Stall speed

    • Maneuver

  13. Dynamics:

    • Determination of the longitudinal and lateral-directional transfer functions of the airplane.

    • Calculation of the damping ratios, frequencies, and time constants of the airplane, compare with FAR 23 requirements. This will determine the short period, phugoid, spiral, roll, and dutch roll behavior. Where necessary, design adjustments will be suggested.

  14. Preliminary layout drawing for all essential airplane systems

  15. Preliminary manufacturing breakdown

  16. Maintenance and accessibility requirements

  17. Preliminary cost analysis

C. Aerodynamic Design & Analysis

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis

  2. Flow Characteristics

  3. Lift and Drag

  4. Torque and Moment

  5. Pressure Distribution

  6. Shape Optimization


D. Detailed Loads Analysis

  1. Generate V-n diagrams and derive maneuver, gust, and landing loads for critical flight conditions

  2. Generate landing gear loads, engine mount loads, ground loads, and flight control system loads

  3. Generate fatigue load spectrum


E. Detailed Structural Design

  1. Perform Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on lifting surfaces and size the lifting surface substructures accordingly

  2. Perform FEA on control surfaces

  3. Perform FEA on the fuselage and size the fuselage substructures accordingly

  4. Perform FEA on the landing gear and size the substructures accordingly

  5. Perform FEA on the engine/firewall integration with the fuselage and size the substructures accordingly

  6. Perform FEA on the full-scale airplane to inspect component interactions and full-scale structural dynamic characteristics

  7. Perform aeroelasticity analysis against divergence and flutter on all lifting surfaces and control surfaces

  8. Perform fatigue and crack growth analysis


F. Detailed Systems Design

  1. Flight control system

  2. Fuel system

  3. Electric system and hydraulic system

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